A Brief Intro To Asynchronous Programming In Rust

Lets say you want to write some async/.await code in Rust, since it's new and cool. Let's start with the simplest async program that you could write (a timer). First we have to create a Future, something that completes at some point in the future but won't start unless you execute it (in Rust, this is called lazy evaluation). Here's some code to start:

// Sleep for 1 second
fn blocking_timer() {

fn main() {
    let thread = std::thread::spawn(blocking_timer);
    // TODO: Turn the thread into a Future
    thread.await; // TODO: Doesn't work

So we have two problems here, first of all we can't .await something unless it's inside of an async fn (function that returns a Future, rather than executing when called). And second, how do we make a Future out of our thread? Turns out the Rust standard library does not have an executor built in, so we have to pick one. Three popular async executors are the futures crate, async-std and tokio. async-std and tokio have other stuff for actually doing I/O built in that we don't need, so we'll go with futures. In Cargo.toml, add:

futures = "0.3"

and then do cargo build. 27 crates get compiled (wow, that's a lot! Just to be able to use a language feature, but could be worse). Looks like futures has everything we need to finish our example, though. And, a lot more (it's kind of overwhelming IMO).

// Sleep for 1 second
fn blocking_timer(sender: futures::channel::oneshot::Sender<()>) {


fn main() {
    let (sender, receiver) = futures::channel::oneshot::channel::<()>();
    let _thread = std::thread::spawn(move || blocking_timer(sender));

    // Turn the thread into a Future
    let thread = async { receiver.await };

    // Execute the future

Yay, we made a future and executed it! I'm pretty happy with how this code turned out. I do have a few minor complaints about having API buried so deep in modules (it made it really hard to find), and having to use a few unwraps(), but I can live with it.

Stuff Gets Gross

Unfortunately, using Futures in Rust can "get gross". Let me show you what I mean with this code from the futures crate documentation:

use futures::future::FutureExt;
use futures::select;
use futures::pin_mut;

// Calling the following async fn returns a Future which does not
// implement Unpin
async fn async_identity_fn(arg: usize) -> usize {

let fut_1 = async_identity_fn(1).fuse();
let fut_2 = async_identity_fn(2).fuse();
let mut fut_1 = Box::pin(fut_1); // Pins the Future on the heap
pin_mut!(fut_2); // Pins the Future on the stack

let res = select! {
    a_res = fut_1 => a_res,
    b_res = fut_2 => b_res,
assert!(res == 1 || res == 2);

This code, IMO, is a little too complicated to really scale to readable code. The reason for this is that our Futures need to be "fused" (a sort of optional future), as well as pinned, because all Futures need to be pinned in order for poll() to work. That's a lot of transformations to do, in order to use your Future, but they are necessary.

Now, let's talk about pinning. Rust has a built in way convert a Box into a pinned box, which is helpful, but there was actually no way to pin something to the stack until the futures crate / pin_utils crate added the pin_mut!() macro. The way it works is actually pretty clever, but try adding #![forbid(unsafe_code)] to the top of your file and see what happens. Guess what, it doesn't compile even though you didn't write any unsafe code! Yes, the macro inserts unsafe blocks into your code (gross). Why do I say this is gross? If you're writing an application in Rust, maybe you want to start off with #![forbid(unsafe_code)] until you can't get around needing unsafe. Using this macro makes that impossible! "Just use a pinned box then!". Oh wait, what if I can't because I'm on an embedded device with no heap?

I also don't believe the above select! macro is very easy to understand for someone who's never seen it before. Unfortunately, this can't be simplified, or can it?

Another "gross" issue is the unforseen idea of "incompatible runtimes". This means that library crates that depend on async-std won't work with libraries that depend on tokio, and is causing a split in the async ecosystem. async-std and tokio both work great for making webservers, but I think we should find a way to make our async libraries compatible, if that's even possible. And, what if we want to make something that's not a webserver?

Don't Give Up Hope

I have found a solution to every problem with async in Rust (Well, at least the ones I mentioned). And, I want to share it with you. That solution is https://crates.io/crates/pasts, a minimal and simpler alternative to the futures crate. pasts doesn't use any macros at all, but is instead based on traits, and as a bonus has zero dependencies and works in a no-std environment. Additionally, I believe there's nothing in it that prevents it from being usable with tokio or async-std (futures from those crates should also be able to run within the pasts executor). Here's the example above rewritten using pasts 0.1.0, released yesterday:

use pasts::prelude::*;

fn main() {
    // spawn_blocking returns a Future that returns Ready when the thread exits.
    pasts::ThreadInterrupt::block_on(pasts::spawn_blocking(|| {

And the select code example from the futures crate documentation rewritten:

use pasts::prelude::*;

// Calling the following async fn returns a Future which does not
// implement Unpin
async fn async_identity_fn(arg: usize) -> usize {

let res = [async_identity_fn(1).fut(), async_identity_fn(2).fut()]

assert!(res == 1 || res == 2);

As you can see, the code (IMO) is a lot cleaner and easier to follow. I hope that this library will help Rustaceans not have to worry about building their own async runtime for their non-webserver projects (because async-std's and tokio's runtimes work best for webservers, due to the tradeoffs that they chose make). This library doesn't spawn any threads outside of the spawn_blocking() API, so you get to choose which threads a Future runs on at compile time. I personally think this approach is as close as you can get to a general purpose async runtime. This also means you can use RefCell to share state between futures on the same thread instead of a specialized Mutex type, as some async libraries provide.

That's Not All!

Now pasts is great for the application side of async/.await, but what about the library side? If you're making an async library, you're probably providing your own Futures, which is trickier to do than it sounds. You need to have a mechanism to wake your futures, and thus comes smelling_salts 0.1.0 (also released yesterday)!

What do I mean by waking a future? While your computer is waiting for some event in the hardware to happen, it should give up CPU time to the other futures. The way it does this is by going to sleep (returning Pending from poll()). When the hardware is ready it needs to be told to wake up. This is done with a Waker. When Waker.wake() is called, poll() gets called again. The pasts executor creates the simplest Waker possible, with no associated context (as those are unsafe to use). You can pass this Waker to smelling_salts, and it will wake your code when the file descriptor is ready.

In pasts, the abstraction around a Waker is called an Interrupt. The ThreadInterrupt public API implements the Interrupt trait and puts the current thread to sleep until .wake() is called. This is implemented by using a Condvar. The executor is also built into this trait as the block_on() function.

Say we don't want to start a new thread every time we want a timer future, because we'll be doing it a lot. Instead we'll create a library depending on smelling_salts, interfacing with a native Linux API, timerfd:

use smelling_salts::{Device, Watcher};
use std::os::{unix::io::RawFd, raw::{c_long, c_int, c_void}};
use std::task::{Context, Poll};
use std::pin::Pin;
use std::future::Future;
use std::mem::MaybeUninit;

struct TimeSpec {
    // struct timespec, from C.
    tv_sec: c_long,
    tv_nsec: c_long,

struct ItimerSpec {
    // struct itimerspec, from C.
    it_interval: TimeSpec,
    it_value: TimeSpec,

extern "C" {
    fn timerfd_create(clockid: c_int, flags: c_int) -> RawFd;
    fn timerfd_settime(
        fd: RawFd,
        flags: c_int,
        new_value: *const ItimerSpec,
        old_value: *mut ItimerSpec,
    ) -> c_int;
    fn read(fd: RawFd, buf: *mut c_void, count: usize) -> isize;
    fn close(fd: RawFd) -> c_int;

/// A timer Future that completes after 1 second.
pub struct SecondTimer {
    device: Device,

impl SecondTimer {
    /// Create a new timer that will expire in 1 second.
    pub fn new() -> Self {
        // Create monotonic, nonblocking timer
        let timerfd = unsafe { timerfd_create(1, 0o4000) };
        assert_ne!(timerfd, -1);

        // Set timer to repeat every second, starting in 1 second.
        let second = TimeSpec {
            tv_sec: 1,
            tv_nsec: 0,
        unsafe {
                &ItimerSpec {
                    it_interval: second,
                    it_value: second,

        // Create timer device, watching for input events.
        let device = Device::new(timerfd, Watcher::new().input());
        SecondTimer { device }

impl Future for SecondTimer {
    type Output = ();
    fn poll(self: Pin<&mut Self>, cx: &mut Context<'_>) -> Poll<Self::Output> {
        let mut num = MaybeUninit::<u64>::uninit();
        if unsafe {
        } == std::mem::size_of::<u64>() as isize {
            // Read succeeded, future completed.
        } else {
            // Watch device and wake when new data is ready to be read.
            // Put future to sleep.

impl Drop for SecondTimer {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        let fd = self.device.fd();
        assert_ne!(unsafe { close(fd) }, -1);

Libraries should not depend on pasts, because they don't need to. This Future will run on any executor (async-std, tokio, pasts, others), and it should be the application author's decision which one to use (for maximum compatibility).

Now, actually using the future in your application with pasts:

use pasts::prelude::*;
use library_name::SecondTimer;

fn main() {


I think my unique approach to handling futures in Rust solves a lot of common problems, and hopefully you find it useful, too. If you want to see it in action, I released async versions of my crates wavy and stick yesterday as well (links below).

  • pasts - A minimal and simpler alternative to the futures crate.
  • smelling_salts - Wake futures using an epoll thread without depending on an executor / runtime.
  • stick - A library that provides futures for gamepads, joysticks and other controllers (currently only Linux).
  • wavy - A library that provides futures for doing real time audio input and output (currently only Linux).

Feel free to email me any corrections in grammar, spelling or technical errors at jeronlau@plopgrizzly.com.